term paper writing manuals
Writing a research paper is a lot easier on you, the student, when you set yourself certain goals. All of this takes place before you start the research and the writing. The saying goes that if you fail to prepare, you prepare to fail. So rather than rushing in to begin writing your research paper, stop, take stock of the situation and list your goals. Here are a few possible specific goals.
The product of this research includes providing a preliminary framework for studying bullying in the academic setting. The model is developed based on an interpretative framework. While researching bullying, a 2003 survey on the effects of stress in academia was conducted demonstrating that 54 percent of respondents suggested that stress caused them to teach at inadequate levels. Further, studies suggests that stress results in conflict with colleagues. Recent studies also confirm that a large majority, or up to 65.6 million Americans experience bullying in some form in the general workplace. Despite the predominance of bullying it has not gained national attention, as some forms of harassment have including discrimination and sexual harassment. Thus, the results of this study can help create more attention to the need for bullying assistance and preventive measures or protocols, particularly in the educational context or in the world of academia. The study will engage in a qualitative investigation of the effects of workplace bullying among college faculty would benefit college administrators in efforts of prevention programs.
Crase established several sources of frustration among college faculty members; these included (1) the need for mandatory student evaluations; (2) stringent guidelines or protocols for promotion; (3) increased fear that faculty would be dismissed; (4) lack of adequate promotion and salary increase and (5) increasing lack of interest and apathy among students. These may contribute to increased bullying or unsettling behavior among faculty members. Lester (2009) suggests that organizational climate can add to workplace frustration, with feelings of academic freedom and autonomy important contributing factors to employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Promoting a climate where diversity of ideas is important to knowledge creation, according to Austin and Gameson are important to preservation of a climate of intimate learning and professional job satisfaction in the academic institution.
Lester suggests that bullying among faculty members is characterized by both the use of formal and informal power techniques that relate to the position of faculty members that have important roles in institutional governance. Other factors that may contribute to bullying may include whether a professional has tenure, and whether an individual has a high level of autonomy on the job. As themes become clear, the nature of work will illustrate new bullying tactics that professionals may employ relative to work. Bullying concerns will likely be revealed relative to the use of lack thereof of formal power in the workplace. Informal power concerns or uses may also be revealed in the way of the uses of privilege and status that can be granted through positional status related to hierarchy. Perpetrators that are in formal positions or those that hold more power are expected to engage in more bullying than those that do not have power or who hold temporary administrative power. Participants that are in administrative roles or do not have tenure are expected to be recipients of bullying tactics.
In the educational realm, administrative positions that may be assigned to faculty may include department chair. This may result in greater power including the ability to create course schedules or new ways to bully victims. Those in administrative roles have the ability to appoint staff to certain positions also. Power concerns may become wide as individuals engage in aggressive behaviors also, if faculty members have concerns about their ability to maintain roles, or are eager to advance in their roles within the university.
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